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Coarse and fine fuel cleaning.

Coarse and fine fuel cleaning.

The Swiss production and engineering company ENCE GmbH (ЭНЦЕ ГмбХ) was founded in 1999, has 16 representative offices and offices in the CIS countries, offers equipment and components from production sites in the USA, Canada and Japan, is ready to develop and supply installations according to your individual technical specifications and filters for cleaning fuels from water and condensate.

Fuel cleaning – general description. Fuel treatment plants.

Long-term storage in tanks, transportation and pumping by pumps contributes to the formation of mechanical suspensions in diesel and aviation fuel, the accumulation of dirt, the appearance of water, and the growth of microorganisms. The presence of water in the fuel has a destructive effect on engine mechanisms, which is equivalent to the effect of a jet of abrasive suspension supplied under high pressure. The issue of fuel quality in Russia is still open; this problem is especially acute for diesel fuel. It is not a secret for anyone that it is for this reason, but officially under a different pretext, that passenger cars popular in Europe and throughout the civilized world, equipped with modern economical powerful and reliable diesel engines, are not supplied to Russia. Even the initially manufactured diesel fuel that meets the required quality standards is contaminated, passing through the transportation system to the final objects of use.

Deteriorated pipeline infrastructure, the use of outdated pumping equipment, Russian-made shut-off and control valves contributes to the formation of mechanical impurities, contaminants and water in diesel fuel transported from storage sites to consumption sites. Contaminated diesel fuel entering the engine destroys individual high-precision engine parts, spray nozzles, etc. where holes of a few microns quickly clog up and lead to breakage with subsequent costly repairs. For this reason, it is reasonable already at the end-use facilities to additionally purify diesel fuel, such insurance will significantly increase the service life of equipment, avoid sudden failure of mechanisms, unplanned downtime and costly repairs..

Purification of turbine, industrial, hydraulic oils.

For similar reasons, it is necessary to constantly monitor the quality of lubricating oils, turbine oils, and hydraulic system oils. Over time, mechanical wear of internal parts, gears, wheel sets, hydraulic cylinder systems, etc. occurs. as the mechanisms wear out, various mechanical impurities (chips, dust, water) accumulate in the lubricating oil, an abrasive is formed, which significantly reduces the wear time of the contacting parts of the mechanisms. It is possible to extend the life of the full-fledged operation of equipment such as turbines, engines, gearboxes, power hydraulics systems in the case of constant quality control and timely cleaning of oils from mechanical impurities.

To solve this problem, which is relevant for most industries, chemical, oil and gas, petrochemical, metallurgical, mechanical engineering and many others, ENCE GmbH (Switzerland) has developed a number of technical solutions and offers custom-made manufacturing and supply of installations for cleaning diesel and aviation fuels, filter equipment for cleaning various types of industrial and hydraulic oils.

The offered equipment is manufactured and assembled in the European branch of the company by the hands of German specialists..

Scope of installations: oil and gas, petrochemical, metallurgical, chemical, energy, nuclear, mechanical engineering, textile, food and other industries.

Purpose: cleaning of light oil products, various types of industrial and hydraulic oils.

The problem of water contamination of diesel fuel.

Any fuel contains a certain proportion of undesirable impurities, and obtaining ideally clean fuels on an industrial scale, given the current state of the art, can be considered unfeasible. Impurities can be contained both in the feedstock and get into it already at the subsequent stages of fuel production, as well as during transportation, storage and final use..

The main contaminants in diesel fuel include:

Inorganic substances Organic substances Microorganisms Water.

According to the state of aggregation, pollutants can be liquid, solid or gaseous. Particulate matter is represented by various types of dust, by-products of wear and corrosion of the transport system and storage tanks, as well as oxides and salts, the source of which and the method of entering the fuel can be very different. Liquid impurities include surfactants, water and resins..

The presence of water in diesel fuel is highly undesirable. Its presence can initiate corrosion processes in fuel systems and storage tanks with the subsequent formation of rust, due to which additional pollution will occur. In the cold season, water is prone to freezing, which leads to a deterioration in engine performance, and in the warm season, water becomes a medium for the growth and reproduction of microorganisms that feed on diesel fuel, due to which its quality decreases, and fuel filters can become clogged.

The negative effect of polluting water on fuel equipment is also important. Cavitation processes that occur in water inclusions during high-pressure injections cause erosive wear of the metal surfaces of the spray nozzles, which leads to a deterioration in the environmental and economic performance of the engine. This is especially true in light of the tightening of environmental requirements for engines and largely ensured by an increase in the accuracy and injection pressure.

It can be assumed that the wear of the fuel equipment is in a quadratic dependence of the fuel injection pressure, that is, even a relatively small increase in the injection pressure significantly reduces the service life of the equipment when using fuel with the same amount of water impurities..

The high cost of parts worn out due to the presence of water and the need to increase the economic and environmental performance of engines inevitably led to the need to improve the quality of diesel fuel, and in particular, to remove polluting water.

Water removal is complicated by the fact that water is in the fuel in two states:

free (size of inclusions 180-260 microns) emulsified (size of inclusions 5-180 microns)

Free water does not mix with the fuel and does not form a stable system with it, that is, it can be relatively easily separated. In turn, the emulsified is mixed with fuel and its separation is a much more difficult task..

Methods for cleaning diesel fuel from water.

Purification of diesel fuel from water is actually the problem of emulsion separation, where water is the dispersed phase. The following are the main cleaning methods:

Defending; Centrifugation; Physical methods (using ultrasonic vibrations, electric fields, etc.); Physicochemical methods (additives, adsorbents); Filtration; Separation.

Upholding – the simplest method of separating water from fuel. It does not require complex equipment, large expenditures of energy or consumables, which, undoubtedly, is the advantage of this method. The settling is carried out in a container where the volume of fuel to be cleaned is placed. Further, under the action of gravitational forces, water droplets begin to sink to the bottom, where they subsequently form a continuous phase, which can be drained and thereby separated from the main volume of fuel.

This method is severely limited in its application due to its disadvantages: incomplete cleaning and duration of the process. Due to the small difference in phase densities, the rate of settling of water droplets is small and takes a long time. In addition, only free water can be removed in this way, while emulsified water remains in the fuel..

Centrifugation is actually a sedimentation process, but carried out in a centrifugal force field. The conditions for centrifugation provide a significant increase in the speed of the process, but the problem of removing emulsified water remains urgent. Also, this method requires additional costs for equipment operation..

Physical methods are based on a certain physical effect on the fuel in order to initiate coagulation processes – clumping of pollutant particles together with the formation of conglomerates. So, for example, in electrically dehydrating apparatus, under the action of an electric field, water droplets are enlarged to such an extent that they can be easily separated by settling. Despite the high efficiency of the methods of this group, they have a number of limitations in use due to the additional complexity of the process and the need for non-standard equipment..

Physicochemical methods are usually aimed at removing various solid and liquid impurities from the fuel, and not water. However, they can help reduce the negative impact of water inclusions. Thus, a number of additives inhibit the growth of microorganisms in water inclusions of the fuel and reduce corrosion processes, due to which the fuel can be stored for a long time without the danger of reducing its characteristics..

Filtration – one of the most common fuel purification processes, which, in addition to removing solids and dust, is also capable of partially separating water. The method consists in the passage of fuel through the porous material of the filter element, on which unwanted impurities are retained. The filter elements become clogged with time and, if not provided for their regeneration, require replacement.

This necessitates constant monitoring of the used treatment equipment..

Separation is a type of filtration. At the same time, this method allows you to purify much more polluted environments, and also with its help you can almost completely separate water. The downside of these advantages is the filter elements that are somewhat more complicated to manufacture.

Nevertheless, separation is one of the most preferred methods for cleaning diesel fuels, as it provides a good degree of purification, and at the same time has good equipment performance and high reliability..

The filter elements used in separation that can effectively remove water from the fuel are called coalescing. Coalescence – the process of fusion of particles of a substance into larger formations, and is applicable to water – it is the process of droplet merging and enlargement. The depth of cleaning when using separation is ensured by removing not only free water from the fuel, but also most of the emulsified water.

The way of organizing the conditions under which coalescence will occur can be different. As an example, consider one of the options in which the droplets grow larger when they pass a number of holes together.

When droplets pass together through each separate partition, they merge and subsequently form a drop of a larger volume. By selecting the baffles in such a way that the size of the passages is successively increased, a corresponding successive increase in water droplets is ensured. At a certain moment, the droplet mass reaches a value sufficient for it to start flowing down the partition.

Thus, the separation of the enlarged dispersed phase of water from the continuous phase of the fuel is achieved..

Below is a schematic representation of the filter element of the separator. The stream of the medium to be cleaned is fed into the central part of the element, after which it sequentially passes through all layers in the radial direction. Further, the refined fuel is removed from the separator, and the enlarged drops of water flow down into the settling zone.

Application of diesel fuel purification plants.

The main purpose of all fuel purification plants is to remove unwanted impurities in order to improve the performance of the fuel. This includes extending the shelf life, reducing or completely eliminating the negative impact on the fuel system, ensuring the correct use of fuel at low or high temperatures, etc..

However, despite the general purpose, cleaning systems can vary significantly depending on the place of use and the list of contaminants to be separated. The choice of the cleaning system is largely influenced by the quality of the supplied diesel fuel. The purification unit can be a separate unit connected to the engine and providing preliminary fuel preparation.

Such installations are compact and designed for long-term operation without constant supervision, but at the same time they are poorly suited for work with heavily contaminated fuel..

There are purification plants designed for the preparation of large volumes of heavily contaminated diesel fuel. They can be both fixed and mobile. They are used for preliminary preparation of fuel before use or storage. This is especially true in the case when modern engines with high environmental performance are operated using cheap, low quality diesel fuel.

In this case, there is a rapid failure of expensive engine parts, and the cost of replacing them turns out to be much greater than the benefit from buying cheaper and lower quality fuel. In addition, it is not always possible to purchase pre-prepared fuel with an initial low content of impurities..

As an example, consider a two-stage diesel fuel purification unit. It has a stationary design and is mounted on a base plate on which the main and auxiliary devices are installed. The main elements are the main (Filter 2) and preliminary (Filter 1) filters. The diesel fuel is pumped to the pre-filter, which is a standard filtration unit. This is where various pollutants such as dust and other particles are retained.

The pre-filter serves to reduce the load on the main filter, where fuel is subsequently supplied to clean it from polluting water. Filter 2 is a coalescence unit, in which water inclusions are enlarged with their subsequent separation. After going through two stages of purification, diesel fuel is removed from the unit and can be used without fear of damaging the engine..

This setting can be optionally improved with a number of additional equipment. So the water accumulating in the coalescing filter requires timely drainage, requiring human intervention, but with the installation of a solenoid valve, this process can be automated by setting the valve to periodically open to drain the accumulated water. It is also possible to install a water meter to measure the flow rate of the discharged water.

An additional heater makes it possible to operate the unit even at low negative temperatures, since it does not allow water to freeze in the sump, thereby disrupting the operation of the unit.

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