The Liturgical Book of John Knox as a Source of the Reformed Liturgy.
1 Journal «Reformed view», 5: 1 (2019) 79 Jong Han Joo John Knox’s Liturgy Book as a Source of Reformed Liturgy Abstract This article examines John Knox’s Geneva Liturgy as an example of Reformed worship. Building on Calvin’s liturgy, Knox’s Geneva Liturgy clearly reflects and reveals Reformed characteristics in both form and content. The text of Knox’s liturgy expresses a Reformed understanding of the sinfulness of humanity.
By liturgical means, Knox encourages the active participation of the community in worship by formulating a special way of singing the psalms during public worship. Knox’s Liturgy also clearly teaches how to recognize the Reformed tradition by emphasizing in particular the presence and operation of the Holy Spirit in public worship. This article, although briefly, clearly shows how modern Ukrainian Reformed and Presbyterian churches can develop and formulate the Reformed tradition by referring to the teachings of Knox’s Geneva Liturgy and comprehending it.
1. Introduction Since the Second Vatican Council, 1 modern evangelical churches have made significant efforts to develop and formulate worship that is culturally acceptable. As a result of this movement for renewed worship, modern evangelical churches place great emphasis on cultural factors in their public worship practices. However, cultural adaptation of worship inadvertently leads to liturgical pluralism and even to «continuous change» in worship.
An alternative route to renewing public worship could be ressourcement 1 «About the Sacred Liturgy» (Sacrosanctum Concilium) one of the decrees of the Second Vatican Council regarding the liturgical renewal. One of the key aspects of this teaching on worship is to adapt to each culture in order to lead the community to the fullest, most active and conscious participation in the ministry of public worship. Protestant traditions have also adopted this principle of liturgical renewal in every community..
2 80 Magazine «Reformed view», 5: 1 (2019) («return to sources») 2. This approach can give contemporary evangelical churches a clearer direction for renewing worship in a situation of liturgical compromise. Among many other Reformed pastors offering Reformed sources, the Scottish Reformer John Knox () stands out for his contributions to the development of Reformed theology and worship practice. In this brief article, we examine Knox’s worship as a liturgical source and example of Reformed worship, based primarily on his Liturgical Book 3. Second, by analyzing Knox’s Worship Book, we will identify the Reformed characteristics of his worship. Finally, in this paper we will try to apply the Reformed characteristics of the Knox liturgy to the practice of worshiping modern Ukrainian Reformed and Presbyterian churches.
2. Knox’s Worship Book: Prayer Form or General Book Like John Calvin 4, Knox also compiled a liturgical book called «Form of prayers», also known as «General book» 5. Knox’s Liturgical Book is not an exhaustive description of his worship ministry, but it certainly provides a general idea of what and how Knox practiced with his congregation in public worship (as one example of Reformed worship). Knox’s liturgical book appeared as a result of his ministry in Geneva. Its structure and content reveal the Reformed features of public worship.
2 William Harmless, Augustine and the Catechumenate (Collegeville: Liturgical Press, 2014), 2. 3 This work, describing Knox’s liturgical book, examines and interprets its form and content. This means that the practices of the community in which Knox served are not being given close scrutiny. 4 Calvin’s Geneva Liturgy is known as «The form of church prayers and hymns, the method of teaching the sacraments and consecrating marriage in accordance with the custom of the ancient church» (1542). 5 Also known as «Geneva Liturgy of Knox».
The original title of this liturgical book: «The form of prayer and ordinance used in the English community of Geneva: endorsed by the famous and pious scholar, John Calvin» (Prayer Form).
3 Journal «Reformed view», 5: 1 (2019) Origins «Forms of Prayers» After accepting the Protestant Reformation, Knox began to sharply criticize the theology and practice of Roman Catholics and Anglicans.6 During his ministry, he traveled to various cities. But of all the places he visited, Knox considered Geneva the most ideal city to apply his Reformed convictions. He called Geneva «the most perfect school of Christ on earth since the days of the apostles» 7. «Geneva Liturgy» Knox (Form of Prayer) was published in 1556 while he was ministering to the English community in Geneva.
This book also became known as «General book» standard liturgical book of the Scottish Church. «Geneva Liturgy» Knox was the first book in English dedicated to the Reformed rite. It appeared in print with the following title: «The Form of Prayer and Ordinance Administration Used in the English Community of Geneva». Knox made «The form of prayers», by making changes to the form of worship that the Reformed Committee had already worked out in 1554 in Frankfurt. This form was slightly modified, a preface was added, and the fifty metric psalms and the catechism of Calvin 8 were translated into English. Returning to Scotland in 1559, Knox took copies with him. «Forms of Prayers».
In 1560, the first General Assembly of the Church of Scotland decreed that the ordinances should be taught according to Knox’s Geneva Rite, which was officially approved in 1562. In 1564 the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland adopted «The form of prayers» as a set of ordinances for the Church of Scotland and this liturgical book was used until 1645, when it was replaced by the Westminster Manual Form and Content «Forms of Prayers» By form and content «Form of prayers» very close to the liturgy of Calvin in Strasbourg (1545) and Geneva (1542). According to this 6 Taken from John Knox, History of the Reformation in Scotland (Edinburgh: Banner of Truth, 1982).
7 Stanford Reid, Trumpeter of God (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1974), Bard Thompson, Liturgies of the Western Church (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1961), 288.
4 82 Magazine «Reformed view», 5: 1 (2019) liturgical book, Sunday morning worship should be conducted in the following order (see below): (Biblical maxim and exhortation) Confession of sins Prayer for Forgiveness Psalm Metric Prayer for the Holy Spirit (for the enlightenment of the Holy Spirit) Reading Scripture Sermon General prayer (long prayer: intercession) Lord’s prayer Apostolic Creed (for the day of the Eucharist) 9 Word of exhortation Exhortation Prayer of the Eucharist (adoration; thanksgiving for creation and redemption; remembrance; glorification) Breaking of bread and distribution (bread and wine) 10 Communion Prayer after the sacrament Singing Psalm Blessing 9 The Knox community is known to hold the Lord’s Supper once every three months. 10 For the first few years in the Knox community, believers came to a large table and ate bread and wine together. However, soon the method of communion changed: they began to pass the bread and thicket through the rows.
5 Journal «Reformed view», 5: 1 (2019) 83 As shown above, the form and content of Knox’s English Geneva worship is not too different from Calvin’s 11 Geneva worship. «Forms of Prayers» belongs mainly to the Strasbourg and Geneva liturgical traditions. William Maxwell, in his Liturgical Portions of the Genevan Service Book, highlighted the influence of Calvin’s liturgy on the Liturgy of Knox 12. Bard Thompson, who studies the history of the liturgy, also points to the connection between Calvin and Knox in the field of worship when he mentions that «structure and text «Forms of Prayers» belongs to the liturgical tradition of Strasbourg and Geneva, although some of its elements came from the English rite» 13.
In short, Knox’s worship and Calvin’s worship stood out for one important feature: the Word became the center of worship through Scripture reading and preaching, and the Word was integrated into the daily life of the community through prayer and the singing of psalms 14. Reading and preaching, inseparable from each other, were practiced in the middle of the service. The liturgy touched everyday life through psalms 15 and a long prayer, which expressed the pastoral care of the community. In this regard, Knox, following Calvin, continued to develop the practice of worship in accordance with the Bible and following the model of the early church. A few more points should be mentioned regarding the form and content of Knox’s liturgy.
First, a translation of the Holy Scriptures was made, thanks to which it became available to people during the 11th Liturgy of Calvin («Form of church prayers», 1542) consists of the following main components: invocation, confession of sins, singing a psalm, prayer for enlightenment, reading Scripture, preaching, long prayer, Lord’s Prayer, Apostolic Creed, singing a psalm, blessing. 12 Taken from William Maxwell, John Knox’s Genevan Service Book, 1556: the Liturgical Portions of the Genevan Service Book used by John Knox while a Minister of the English Congregation of Marian Exiles at Geneva, (Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd, 1931). 13 Thompson, Liturgies of the Western Churches, Reformed theology has always emphasized the importance of integrating worship into everyday life by seeking God’s presence and God’s works both in creation and in ordinary life.
James Smith, Awaiting the King: Reforming Public Theology (Grand Rapids: Bakers, 2017), And Graham Hughes, Reformed Sacramentality (Collegeville: Liturgical Press, 2017), Bible Psalms are prayers that reflect the full spectrum of problems in human life. Wed Michael Jinkins, In the House of the Lord: Inhabiting the Psalms of Lament (Collegeville: the Liturgical Press, 1998); John Witvliet, The Biblical Psalms in Christian Worship (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2007) and Martin Tel, Joyce Borger, and John Witvliet, Psalms for All Seasons: A Complete Psalter for Worship (Grand Rapids: Brazos Press, 2012).
6 84 Log «Reformed view», 5: 1 (2019) Knox. Thus, it was much easier to return the sermon to its most important place in worship; people could constantly and regularly receive instruction and exhortation from Scripture. Secondly, in his liturgy, Knox did not use the lectionary and canceled the whole intricate system «community responses» during worship, except for the word «Amen». Finally, services began quite early on Sunday, around 8-9 am. And on the solemn days of the administration of the Holy Communion even earlier, around 3-4 in the morning.
3. Historical development and problematic issue of the Geneva Liturgy of Knox Throughout history, along with the liturgy of Calvin, the Westminster leadership, etc.. «Form of prayers» Knox had a profound influence on many Reformed communities, including the Presbyterian of England.16 As mentioned above, Knox, influenced by Calvin 17, continued to develop the Reformed practice of worship in Scotland, as he did in Geneva. In the tradition of Reformed worship, Calvin was influenced by Martin Bucer’s Strasbourg liturgy (1539), while the Waldgrave and Middleburg liturgy (1586) drew heavily on Calvin’s liturgy (1542) through the prism of Knox’s Geneva Liturgy (1556). The main forms and main elements of worship in all these Reformed liturgies are not very different from each other.
In particular, the basis of the English Presbyterian liturgies (Knox, Waldgrave, and Middleburgh) is undoubtedly Calvinistic worship with its principle that worship should be based on Scripture. Along with Calvin’s Liturgy, Knox’s Geneva Liturgy may serve as proof that the Reformed tradition does not reject the prayer book as such.18 However, in the Reformed tradition, 16 Darryl Hart, Recovering the Mother Kirk: The Case for Liturgy in the Reformed Tradition (Eugene: Wipf and Stock, 2014), Stanford Reid argues that Knox, as a follower of Calvin, played a large role in spreading the views of this Geneva reformer, from whom he borrowed most of theological beliefs, both through personal contact with him and through indirect influence. See John Calvin, John Knox, and the Scottish Reformation, Church, Word, and Spirit, edited by James Bradley and Richard Muller (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1987).
18 The prayer book is not meant here «missal», including detailed prayers and their order in worship, as in the Anglican Prayer Book (Book of Common Prayer) or in the Formulary of the Roman Catholic Liturgy.
7 Log «Reformed view», 5: 1 (2019) 85 prayer books are not strict liturgical prescriptions. Rather, its main purpose is to show God’s rationale for the accepted order of worship and to show ministers a general direction in which they can move by adhering to sound doctrines and a sound approach to prayer.19 On the other hand, the practice of worship on the Lord’s Day in Knox’s Geneva Liturgy reveals the Word the central character of Knox’s liturgy, although the Lord’s Supper is not at all ignored. As Bard Thompson noted when interpreting Knox, «Supper (at Knox’s) is not often celebrated; the unity of the Word and the Sacraments is not as perceptible as in other churches of the Reformed tradition; and the elevation of the pulpit instead of the Table to the rank of the central place of worship may reflect this division» 20. In light of this infrequent practice of the Lord’s Supper, Knox could be criticized for not wanting to strictly follow the Reformed tradition regarding the use of the sacraments in worship.
However, infrequent practice of the Lord’s Supper does not necessarily disrupt the structure of Reformed worship. «Word and Table». Nicholas Walterstorff, in an apologetic tone, substantiates Word-centered worship by distinguishing between structure and appearance 21. Christian worship rests on an unbreakable structure «Word and Table» 22. However, in the history of Christian worship, this structure has manifested itself in different ways; Knox continued the structure of the Reformed Word and Table pattern, but emphasized the Word more.
In his books The Liturgical Portions of Genevan Service Book, A History of Christian Worship, and A History of Worship in the Church of Scotland, William Maxwell also argued that Knox, like the Reformers, did not intend to depart from the central worship tradition. «Word and Table»; he 19 It is easy to see that the Reformed tradition did not reject such liturgical books as «Westminster leadership» (1644), «Reformed liturgy» Richard Baxter (1661), and contemporary books on worship in Reformed and Presbyterian churches. 20 Thompson, Liturgies of the Western Churches, Nicholas Wolterstorff, The Reformed Liturgy, in Major Themes in the Reformed Tradition, ed. Donald McKim (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1992), Some Reformed theologians explicitly state that the balance between the Word and the Table is a Reformed structure of worship. «Wherever the Word of God is preached and heard in purity, the sacraments [should] be performed [performed] according to the ordinance of Christ» (Jean Calvin, «Instruction in the Christian Faith», 4.1.9).
Howard Hageman, Pulpit and Table (Richmond, VA: John Knox Press, 1962); Jean Jacques von Allmen, Worship, Its Theology and Practice (New York: Oxford University Press, 1965).
8 86 Magazine «Reformed view», 5: 1 (2019) simply sought to achieve the purity of early church worship 23. Moreover, Gordon Donaldson argues that the Scottish reformers could well have argued that their goal was to return to the practice of taking holy communion every Lord’s Day, even though local churches did not practice the sacrament every Day of the Lord Reformed Characteristics of Knox’s Geneva Worship As a Reformed worship that was practiced in Geneva, the structure and content of Knox’s liturgy clearly reflects a robust Reformed theology of worship. Through liturgical practice, Knox sought to uncover a biblical understanding of human nature, to achieve active, meaningful community participation in singing and prayer, and to enhance the didactic aspect of shaping a life of worship. First of all, Knox’s liturgy begins with «confessions of sins».
Immediately after invocation with biblical maxims and a short admonition at the very beginning of the service, Knox led the congregation to a confession of sins: «When the congregation gathers, the minister leads it to confession, exhorting people to diligently test themselves, their hearts and their words.» 25. Knox included in the liturgy two examples of recorded confession prayers: the first prayer «confession of the sins of their time» (based on Dan. 9); the second «confessing every state of human sinfulness» 26. Leading the community to the confession of sins, Knox emphasized human weakness and inability to approach God without His help even at the very beginning of the service.
Moreover, this practice implies 23 Taken from Maxwell’s major works: John Knox’s Genevan Service Book, 1556: the Liturgical Portions of the Genevan Service Book used by John Knox while a Minister of the English Congregation of Marian Exiles at Geneva, (Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd, 1931); A History of Worship in the Church of Scotland (New York, Oxford University Press, 1955). John Barkley, in his book Worship of the Reformed Church (Richmond: John Knox Press, 1967), following Maxwell, argues that the separation of the Word from the sacraments, the transformation of Sunday worship into sermon and the quarterly celebration of the Supper was Zwingli’s intention, not Calvin’s or Knox’s. 24 Gordon Donaldson, Reformation to Covenant, Studies in the History of Worship in Scotland, ed., Duncan B. Forrester and Douglas M. Murray (Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1996). 25 Knox s Genevan Liturgy in Thompson, Knox s Genevan Liturgy in Thompson,
9 Log «Reformed view», 5: 1 (2019) 87 that the sinfulness of people prevents them from worshiping God properly when they embark on public worship based on their inner state and their desires.27 Second, the Knox Liturgy greatly emphasizes the importance of the active participation of the community in worship. minimizing the gap between the ordained pastor (or worship leader) and the congregation (congregation). For example, Knox encouraged his church to sing the psalms in their own language, metric and lyrics based on well-known melodies. Thanks to this, the congregation could, as an active participant, add their voices to the general worship. Knox staged the singing of psalms in the liturgy twice: immediately after the confession of sins and immediately before the blessing at the end of the service. Moreover, Knox introduced into worship «common prayer» intercession for the members of the ecclesiastical body of Christ.
This common prayer as an element of pastoral care for the community during worship was not Knox’s innovation. Before him, Calvin had already established in his liturgy the model of long pastoral prayer 28. By joining this long pastoral prayer, the congregation could more consciously participate in the worship.
In addition, Knox also sought «reduce differences between clergy and parishioners by avoiding priestly vestments» 29. Third, Knox’s Liturgy reveals the importance of the Holy Spirit in worship. He placed a prayer for the Holy Spirit before reading Scripture and preaching the Word: «the minister prays for the help of the Holy Spirit of God and then starts preaching» 30.
This prayer for the illumination of the Holy Spirit points to Knox’s deep conviction that the preaching of the Word should be, in essence, the ministry of the Holy Spirit, so that preachers can participate in the ministry of spiritual direction and the proclamation of the gospel. Knox’s emphasis on the ministry of the Holy Spirit in worship can also be seen in the freedom of pastoral prayer of both confession prayer and communal prayer. Although Knox suggested 27 This Reformed understanding of humans as sinful creatures is clearly visible in Calvin’s theology. See Carlos Eire, War against the Idols: The Reformation of Worship from Erasmus to Calvin (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1986),, Hughes Old, Calvin’s Theology of Worship, Give Praise to God: A Vision for Reformed Worship. edited by Philip Ryken, Derek Thomas, and J. Ligon Duncan III (Phillipsburg: P.&R., 2003), John Calvin, Forms of Prayer for the Church (1542).
Calvin s Tracts. Vol. 2. Translated by Henry Beveridge (Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock, 2002).
29 Thompson, Liturgies of Western Churches, Knox s Genevan Liturgy in Thompson, 297.
10 88 Magazine «Reformed view», 5: 1 (2019) recorded prayers for confession of sins and common prayers, at the same time he gave pastors the freedom to compose the structure and content of prayer themselves, relying on the Holy Spirit and carefully analyzing the life of the church. According to Knox, one of the responsibilities of a pastor «lead people and exhort them diligently» 31. Commenting on this point, Thompson points out that «the ministers enjoyed great freedom; through the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, they could independently compose prayers for worship» Lessons that modern Ukrainian Reformed and Presbyterian churches can learn from Knox’s Liturgy of Geneva Modern Reformed and Presbyterian churches do not need to restore Knox’s Liturgy by republishing his liturgy book or by following all of its precepts. : creatively find the connection between its content and the modern context of liturgical practice. Knox’s Geneva Liturgy, as an example of Reformed worship, still offers modern Reformed and Presbyterian churches a sound foundation for worship and good leadership. Ukrainian Reformed and Presbyterian churches can also extract from the Knox Liturgy in Geneva various necessary information regarding the practice of public worship: reflection and a sound understanding of what a person is in the presence of God; full, conscious and active participation of the community in worship; Sovereign Role of the Holy Spirit in Public Worship The Reformed View of Man Knox’s Geneva Liturgy largely reflects the Reformed view of what man is in the presence of God.
By placing a prayer of confession of sins at the beginning of the service, Knox thereby confirmed his 31 Knox s Genevan Liturgy in Thompson, Thompson, Liturgies of the Western Church. «liturgical archeology» is an attempt to use the practice of the past in a completely different context of the present.
11 Log «Reformed view», 5: 1 (2019) 89 Theological Anthropology: People Are Sinners Before God. This liturgical order (the confession of sins at the beginning of the service) clearly reflects the Reformed view of man, emphasizing the truth that a correct understanding of man is inseparable from a correct understanding of God, and that human beings can never approach God on their own. Reformed worship emphasizes that sin is «serious obstacle to worship» 34. Modern believers tend to criticize the styles or forms of worship, believing that this is what prevents them from participating in worship; they seek new and creative forms of worship, viewing them as a positive aspect of the liturgy 35. However, the main reason that prevents them from approaching God during worship lies in human nature. «We do not usually associate unsatisfactory worship with our sinfulness.» 36.
In light of this, confession of sins is an essential element of worship for building a healthy relationship with God. Modern Ukrainian and Presbyterian churches can strengthen their Reformed identity if they not only teach about human sinfulness in catechism lessons, but also encourage the community to practice in worship «confession of sins». In particular, the prayer of confession of sins should be placed at the beginning of public worship, since «the order of worship with a confession placed at the beginning reflects the fact that our Christian faith begins with the confession of sins» 37. Due to the regular confession of sins at the beginning of the service, people will begin to deeply realize that without repentance it is impossible to start a life of faith. In the same time «confession of sins» should be a communal action in public worship.
In the explanations for two «confessions of sin» Knox even admits the confession of sins is not an individual prayer, but the prayer of the entire community of believers, since he constantly uses the word «we». Thus, confessing sins at worship services will be more appropriate if you call the church to reflect on their sins and confess, presenting this as the responsibility of the entire community. Referring to Knox’s doctrine of confession of sins, modern Reformed and Presbyterian believers can 34 William Dyrness, Sin and Grace, A More Profound Alleluia: Theology and Worship in Harmony, ed., Leanne Van Dyk (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2005), Swee Hong Lim and Lester Ruth, Lovin On Jesus: A Concise History of Contemporary Worship (Nashville: Abingdon Press, 2017), Dyrness, Sin and Grace, Dyrness, Sin and Grace, 45.
12 90 Magazine «Reformed view», 5: 1 (2019) learn and practice the principle that «it is through the confession of sins that one can finally come to a true community» 38. In light of this, through regular and joint confessions of sins during worship, believers can become aware of their condition before God and recognize themselves as a community of faith, constantly directing their hearts to God as an object of worship Community participation As mentioned above, Knox’s Geneva Liturgy established the practice general singing of the Psalms. Horton Davies, an expert in worship in England for centuries, praised this communal dimension in Knox’s public worship, noting that the chanting of the Psalms promoted greater church participation in worship.39 Since 1960, the worship renewal movement has focused on how to lead the community towards «full, conscious and active participation» 40.
But centuries before this movement, the Reformed tradition emphasized the importance of the full, conscious and active participation of the community in worship through music and prayer. Knox borrowed the singing of the Psalms in worship from the practice of Calvin. Calvin’s Reformed view of music and his practice can be summarized as follows: «the structures he introduced were metric psalms, one monophonic line, one note per syllable of the text, no melismatics, no polyphony, no instruments, no chorus and the whole community sings in unison» 41.
According to Calvin, the Reformed Church, by encouraging and popularizing general singing in unison in worship, tried to help congregations actively and consciously participate in worship. According to the Reformed understanding of music, churches should be careful not to distinguish the choir as a separate group of people and not allow musical performances in worship. 38 This argument is borrowed from Dietrich Bonhoeffer’s book «To live together». 39 Horton Davies, Worship of the English Puritans (Morgan: Soli Deo Gloria, 1997), «This full and active participation of the entire people should be given primary attention in the organization and development of the Liturgy, for it is the first and necessary source from which Christians must draw the true Christian spirit. Therefore, in all pastoral activity, pastors should earnestly strive for such participation through appropriate preparation.» Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy, Second Vatican Council.
Italics added. 41 Paul Westermeyer, Te Deum: The Church and Music (Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 1998), 157; John Witvliet, The Spirituality of the Psalter: Metrical Psalms in Liturgy and Life in Calvin s Geneva, Calvin Theological Journal 32: 2 (November 1997), 280.
13 Log «Reformed view», 5: 1 (2019) 91 While professionally trained and gifted people can help lead the music ministry, the emphasis in worship music should be less on the performing aspect, but on more active and complete community participation in worship. Modern Ukrainian Reformed and Presbyterian churches can also continue the Reformed tradition, developing a communal aspect in liturgical music. To develop a Reformed approach through music, chant leaders and pastors must first view chanting in worship as a community activity rather than a matter of individual taste for melody and rhythm.
The role of the music leader is not so much to lead the general singing as to help the community sing together and harmoniously. Christians today are accustomed to listening to only the music that they like, which is individualistic, so music leaders should instruct people to sing hymns together with traditional melody and biblical texts to actively participate in worship. At the same time, in the context of the Ukrainian Reformed tradition, it is strongly recommended not to separate the choir from the community in order to preserve the integrity of the church.
The center of musical worship is the community, not the choir. With this in mind, it is strongly recommended that the choir (if it is really necessary) be used only to help the congregation sing in a harmonious and correct way Emphasis on the Holy Spirit As indicated above, when it was discussed how important the Holy Spirit is in Knox’s Geneva Liturgy, Scripture reading, preaching, prayer and even the Lord’s Supper in direct dependence on the ministry of the Holy Spirit. Firmly adhering to the Reformed tradition, Knox deliberately introduced the prayer for enlightenment, invoking the Holy Spirit, into worship.
According to Knox, the prayers before and after the ministry of the Word are not just transitional insertions in the liturgy. On the contrary, prayer for enlightenment before the ministry of the Word and common prayer after the ministry of the Word should be considered important elements of public worship, as taught by the Reformed tradition. In his liturgical text, Calvin clearly asserts the central role of the Holy Spirit, using a Trinitarian structure in his liturgical prayer: «Deign then, oh, full of goodness and mercy God and Father, show us mercy in the name of.
14 92 Magazine «Reformed view», 5: 1 (2019) Jesus Christ is your Son and our Lord. Blot out all our guilt, cleanse all our filthiness and every day multiply in us the gifts of Your Holy Spirit» 42. The Reformed theologian Philip Butin also emphasized the important role of the Holy Spirit in Reformed worship, pointing out that «true worship is prompted only by the Holy Spirit, since He is the only One who can direct the activity of people and the resources of the world order to the glory of God’s true nature» 43. The more modern author James Smith, in his little book «Letter to a Young Calvinist: An Invitation to the Reformed Tradition» 44 also states that the important place and role of the Holy Spirit in worship and ecclesiology was emphasized by the Reformed tradition as a characteristic feature of it. By invoking the Holy Spirit in worship, we recognize His role in every element of reading, preaching, and prayer.
Reading Scripture is not just a cognitive interaction with the Bible, but listening to God with a willingness to obey (through the help of the Holy Spirit). Preaching the Word is not simply offering spiritual lessons or doctrines of the Christian faith, but a means of God’s grace through which people can experience God’s presence and participate in the ministry of the Holy Spirit. Pastor’s prayer is not just a human request directed to God, but a way of caring for the church, when the daily life of people is connected with the presence of the Holy Spirit. Ukrainian Reformed and Presbyterian churches can develop and comprehend the ministry of the Holy Spirit in worship.
First of all, it is imperative, following Knox’s example, not to separate the reading of Scripture from the preaching of the Word. As James White explains, «the invocation of the Holy Spirit and the plea for enlightenment before the reading of Scripture have taken a firm place in Reformed worship» 45. Scripture reading and preaching should be a single block through which the Holy Spirit speaks to people during worship. Given that these two elements of worship (reading Scripture and preaching) are inseparable, the prayer invoking the Holy Spirit should be performed before reading the Word and preaching, and not between them. In addition, Knox included in the general (or pastoral) prayer the entire spectrum of possible situations in human life.
Pastoral care is also done through a petition to Saint 42 Calvin, Forms of Prayer for the Church (1542), 100. Italics added. 43 Philip Butin, Constructive Iconoclasm: Trinitarian Concern in Reformed Worship, Studia Liturgica 19: 2 (1989), James K. A. Smith, Letter to a Young Calvinist: An Invitation to the Reformed Tradition (Grand Rapids: Brazos, 2010).
45 James White, Protestant Worship (Louisville: John Know Press, 1989), 68.
15 Journal «Reformed view», 5: 1 (2019) 93 The Spirit has looked after the needs of the people 46. Ukrainian Reformed and Presbyterian pastors can also show pastoral care, calling in the prayer of the Holy Spirit to intervene in everyday situations. To improve pastoral care through common liturgical prayer, pastors should carefully and diligently examine the life of the community and wisely choose words in prayer, this is the method of pastoral care during worship with the help of the Holy Spirit.
To care for the congregation through pastoral prayer, pastors benefit from developing the quality of discernment, which is necessary to diligently study the life of the church. It is also important to invoke the Holy Spirit with the request that His presence and deeds transformed the life of the community. Conclusion This article has offered a brief analysis of Knox’s Geneva Liturgy as an example of Reformed worship. Knox’s Geneva Liturgy was based on Calvin’s liturgy: their form and content are almost identical.
Through the development and practice of worship based on Knox’s liturgical text, Reformed theology and practice of worship has developed among English Presbyterian churches and beyond. Knox’s worship clearly reflects the Reformed view of human sinfulness. Knox also actively encouraged the participation of the community in worship by liturgical means, developing for this a special type of singing of the Psalms during public worship.
Moreover, Knox’s Liturgy, described in his liturgical book, emphasizes the importance of the presence and action of the Holy Spirit during worship. Modern Ukrainian Reformed and Presbyterian churches can also continue the development of the Reformed tradition by turning to Knox’s Geneva Liturgy and making sense of it. By practicing «Confession 46 Knox, «Forms of prayer», in Thompson, the Early Church Fathers emphasized that one of the most important elements of pastoral ministry is the full care of the community through the ministry of the Word during worship.
Adapted from St Gregory the Great, The Book of Pastoral Rule (Crestwood: St Vladimir s Seminary Publishing, 2007); John Chrysostom, Six Books on the Priesthood (Crestwood: St Vladimir s Seminary Publishing, 1996). 47 The gift of discernment was developed by the early church fathers and Puritan pastors, especially in the ministry of Richard Baxter. Richard Baxter practiced «visits» in order to find out in what spiritual state his community is.
Wed Richard Baxter, Reformed Pastor (N.A: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2012), 57, 120.
16 94 Log «Reformed view», 5: 1 (2019) Sins» at the beginning of the service, the community can build a right relationship with God. When all believers have the opportunity to sing Bible psalms together with a familiar melody and rhythm at a service, this serves to increase the active and meaningful participation of the community in worship. By calling on the Holy Ghost to help believers read and listen to Scripture appropriately, and by praying for the needs of the people, worship leaders can more diligently pastoral and discernment for the congregation.
This short article is devoted only to the written liturgical book of Knox, and therefore does not touch on the social, political and theological aspects of his pastoral ministry. Perhaps this will be the subject of our consideration in subsequent articles. Jong Han Joo PhD (Fuller Theological Seminary) Affiliate Professor at Fuller Theological Seminary Bibliography Barkley, John. Worship of the Reformed Church. Richmond: John Knox Press, Baxter, Richard.
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